What were the problems of the Democratic Government, 1919-22?

From 1919–22, the Italian Government aligned with the term 'Transformismo' and the government was elected through 'Proportional Representation'.

Trasformismo: a centrist coalition government which rejects the transition of the state of the government to left or right, while holding ‘liberal’ views.

Proportional Representation: an electoral system which means the higher the percentage of votes a political party receives, the more seats they can have in the parliament.

Political System of Italy, 1919–22:

The King served as the head of the government.

The King was responsible for appointing the Prime Minister and Cabinet Ministers

The King also appointed the Senate (members were appointed for life)

The role of the Italian People was to elect councils (initially, only 2% of the population was able to vote, although this was gradually extended) and elect deputies.

The Chamber of Deputies was a part of Parliament

Meanwhile, the Church had a very powerful influence in Italy. 

The structure of the Italian Parliament in 1913, 1919 and 1921 respectively:

Political Parties of Italy in 1922:

As a result of the implementation of Proportional Representation, many different parties with differing views were in Government. To view information about different political parties up to 1922, click the links below.

Problems of the Democratic Government in Italy from 1919 to 1922:

The Biennio Rosso

The Biennio Rosso were two chaotic years, marked by revolutions and uprisings which were sparked by the government's failures to solve problems (importantly the economic crisis and high unemployment rate) following the First World War. The protests took place across the country, led by various political parties from all areas of the political spectrum.

However, by 1921, the movement had declined significantly as a result of an industrial crisis that had caused massive layoffs and wage cuts. Despite this, the Biennio Rosso, as a revolutionary period, was instrumental to the political development of Italy from 1919 to 22.

It sparked a wave of protests which continued into the Fascist March on Rome, which eventually resulted in Mussolini's leadership.