The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

Reasons for the pact:

  • After the disappointment of the USA not being allowed to join the League of Nations, the US secretary of State Frank Billings Kellogg alongside Aristide Pierre Henri Briand proposed a means of peace-keeping in Europe through the banning of wars across the world.

  • The continuation and signing of the treaty was to happen in Paris with 15 nations attending France, the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy and Japan.

Aims and terms of the Treaty:

  • The League arranged the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, which had the main aim of outlawing war.

  • The use of weapons and arms were prohibited, unless being used as a means of self-defense against attacks or if it suited the League's covenant and other peace treaties of the League.

  • All disputes were to be handled/settled by the League of Nations.

Why did it fail?

  • The Pact ended up being completely ineffective due the numerous loop-holes it had by allowing nations to use arms in a means of self defense.

  • The League of Nations also failed to establish a means of enforcement for the treaty which rendered it pointless as nations just ignored it.

  • Tensions were still extremely high in Europe as many nations refused to follow through with the treaty.