How did Colonial Powers carve up China?
They wanted a Chinese colony as a coaling station to support its global naval presence.
They believed a colonial empire would support the mother country of Germany.
After two German Catholics were murdered in China, they invaded.
The Germans accepted a lease of the bay for 99 years until 1997.
Russia: Liaodong Peninsula
Triple Intervention Russia wanted Port Arthur as a warm-water port and were pressured by Russia, France and Germany.
They pressured Japan to give up its protectorate over Korea.
Russia took over Port Arthur and the Liaodong Peninsula.
France: Kwang Chowan
The colony was strategically located as it would protect their ships from typhoons, while the area was commercially unimportant.
France wished to protect Roman Catholic Missionaries, however, they also acquired exclusive mining rights.
Kwangchou Wan was leased to France until 1997.
French forces occupied the region on 22 April 1898 and agreed to a lease on 29 May 1898.
It was administered by French Indochina from 5 January 1900 until it was occupied by Japan on 21st February 1943 and ceded by the French on 18th August 1945.
Japan wished to expand their empire and open up Korea to Japanese trade.
The Korean Empire became a Japanee protectorate in 1905 and was annexed in 1910.
There was a rebellion against Chinese rule, so the Japanese used it as an excuse to send troops.
Japan: Formosa (Taiwan)
Japan had tried to take control in 1874, but was not ready for war with China and withdrew.
They fought the Sino-Japanese war and China asked for a treaty. As a result, Taiwan was ceded to Japan.
N/A – Unknown
They fought the Sino-Japanese war and Japan won. As a result, the Liaodong Peninsula was ceded to Japan.
Britain: Weihaiwei and the New Territories
Britain wanted Weihaiwei as a naval base to counter Russian and German presence in the area.
Britain wanted the New Territories for the growing population of Hong Kong and to counter French influence in Southern China.
Weihaiwei was leased under a treaty that stated that it would be leased concurrently with Russia's lease of Port Arthur.
The New Territories were leased under a clause from unequal treaties that gave Britain preferential treatment as the most favoured nation.