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History: From One Student to Another
IGCSE: Germany, 1918-45
The Weimar Republic
The German Revolution of 1918
The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Weimar Constitution
The Spartacist Uprising
German Reaction to The Treaty Of Versailles
The Kapp Putsch
The French Invasion of the Ruhr and Hyperinflation
The role of Stresemann in solving hyperinflation
The Weimar Republic’s foreign policy successes
The cultural achievements of the Weimar period
Continuing political and economic problems
The extent to which the republic recovered between 1924-1929
The Nazi Party’s Rise to Power
Hitler’s role in the early Nazi Party
The Nazi’s political idea: 25 Point Party programme
The Munich Putsch: its failures and successes
The reasons why the Nazis had little success in the 1920s
The Wall Street Crash and the effects of the Great Depression on Germany
Nazi elections promises and campaign methods between 1930-1933
The reasons why Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933
The Reichstag Fire and Emergency Powers
The March Elections of 1933 and the Enabling Act
The Gleichschaltung Laws
The Night of the Long Knives and the Oath of Loyalty
The death of Hindenburg
Nazi control over Germany
The use of terror through the SS, Gestapo and law courts
The use of propaganda
Control over the Christian Churches
Reasons for the persecution of minorities
Increasing persecution of Jews in the 1930s
Opposition to the Nazis
Why was there not more opposition?
Life in Nazi Germany
Nazi views of women, their aims and their policies towards them
Nazi views of young people, their aims and their policies towards them
Youth opposition groups
Early Nazi successes through blitzkrieg
Rationing, allied bombing and the war economy
The Holocaust and the Final Solution
Nazi Economic Policy
Was Nazi Germany a totalitarian state?
IGCSE: International Relations
The Peace Treaties
The Paris Peace Conference
The Treaty of Versailles
The League of Nations
Organisation of the League of Nations
Why did the Depression make the League's job more difficult?
Why did the world disarmament conference fail?
The Manchurian Crisis
The Abyssinian Crisis
Reasons why the League failed
The Causes of the Second World War
Hitler’s foreign policy aims
German involvement in the Spanish Civil War
Anschluss with Austria
The Sudetenland Crisis and the Munich Agreement
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
Hitler's role in causing the war
The Origins of the Cold War
The Yalta Agreement
The Potsdam Agreement
Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech
The Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe
The US Policy of Containment
The causes of the Berlin Blockade, the Berlin Airlift and its consequences
Who was to blame?
How did the Soviets take-over Eastern Europe?
How did the United States react?
Where were these policies practiced?
How did the Soviet Union respond to the actions of the USA?
How did the Soviet Union keep control over countries in Eastern Europe?
1948: The Berlin Blockade
1956: The Hungarian Revolution
1961: The Berlin Wall
1968: Events in Czechoslovakia
1979: The Soviet Afghan War
1980: The Solidarity Movement in Poland
The Korean War
How far did Cold War tensions increase in the 1950s?
The Cuban Missile Crisis
The Vietnam War
(b) Why did US involvement in the Vietnam War escalate? [6 marks]
Types of Warfare in the Vietnam War
Why did the USA withdraw from Vietnam?
Why did events in the Gulf matter, c. 1979-2000?
Why was Saddam Hussein able to come to power in Iraq?
How influential was Stalin to Saddam's rule over Iraq?
Why was there an Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979?
What were the consequences of the Iranian Revolution?
Why did the Iran-Iraq war last for so long?
How dangerous was the Iran-Iraq war for stability in the Gulf?
Why did the Gulf War only last for 7 months?
Who suffered more from the First Gulf War: Saddam or his people?
IGCSE: Exam Techniques
What is the message of this cartoon?
How far do these sources agree?
How similar are these two cartoons?
Why was this source published in …?
Are you surprised by this source?
How reliable is this source?
What can we learn from this source about (a certain topic/event/etc)?
Why was this speech made in (year/location/etc)?
How useful is this source for a historian studying/as evidence about (a per
Does Source * prove Source * wrong/right?
Does Source * mean that [the author of other source] was lying in Source*?
Does Source * make Source * surprising?
Question 6: Source-Based Essay Question
How to revise for History IGCSE
AS-Level: International History, 1870–1945
Empire and the emergence of world powers, 1870–1919
Scramble for Africa
European Rivalry over Africa
Why did European imperialism increase tensions between the Great Powers?
Was European imperialism beneficial or detrimental for Africans?
How did Africans resist European Imperialism?
Why did the Boers and Britain go to war in 1899?
Scramble for China
How did Colonial Powers carve up China?
The Open Door Note and Open Door Policy
Why did the Boxer Rebellion break out in 1899? 
The emergence of Japan as a world power
1853: Commodore Perry's visit to Japan
1868-90: Meiji Reforms
1894-95: First Sino-Japanese War
1895: The Treaty of Shimonoseki
1895: Triple Intervention
1902: Anglo-Japanese Alliance
1904-05: Russo-Japanese War
1914-18: The First World War
The emergence of the USA as a world power
Why had the USA become a continental power by 1890?
Economic growth and the need for trade in the late nineteenth century
Why did the US wish to expand it's international interests?
1898: The Spanish-American War
The USA's entry into the First World War
Why was the US neutral until 1917?
How did the USA contribute to the Allied war effort?
The League of Nations and international relations in the 1920s
Why was there dissatisfaction with the peace settlements of 1919-1920?
The Peace Settlements of 1919-23
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
The Treaty of Saint-Germain (1919)
The Treaty of Neuilly (1919)
The Treaty of Trianon (1920)
The Treaty of Sevres (1920)
The Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
Reactions of victors and defeated powers
Crises and Tensions
French Invasion of the Ruhr in 1923
Corfu Crisis of 1923
The Washington Conferences (1921-22)
The Genoa Conference (1922)
The Rapallo Pact (1922)
Treaty of Lausanne
Improving international relations, 1924-1929
The Role of the USA
Economic Recovery and Reconstruction
The Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
The Young Plan (1929)
Aims, membership and structure of the League
Organisations of the League of Nations
Administering the Post-War peace settlements
The League's work
Preventing Future War
The League and Disputes
The League’s Unsuccessful Work
The League’s Successful Humanitarian Work
The League of Nations and international relations in the 1930s
1929: The Great Depression
1932-1934: The World Disarmament Conference
The Failure of Disarmament
1934-1937: The Abyssinian Crisis
1935: What was the Stresa Front?
1936: Spanish Civil War
1936: Foreign Responses to the Civil War in Spain
Hitler's Foreign Policy
Why did Britain and France pursue a policy of appeasement?
1933: German Rearmament
1936: Remilitarisation of the Rhineland
1938: Anschluss with Austria (1938)
1938: Czechoslovakia and the Munich Conference
1939: The Nazi-Soviet Pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact)
1939: The Invasion of Poland
Why did war break out in 1939?
Was Britain prepared for war in 1939?
China and Japan, 1912–1945
How did the Communists gain control of China?
1919: The May the Fourth Movement
1920s: Growth of the Kuomintang Party
1926-1935: How did Chiang and the Kuomintang consolidate their power?
1928: Attempts at Modernisation and Reforming China
1936: The Xi'an Incident
1936: The Sino-Japanese War
1936–: Decline in support for Chiang Kai Shek and the Kuomintang
1936-1948: The Yan’an Soviet
Japan’s international status in 1919
The Failure of Democracy in Japan
How did Military Rule affect the expansion of Japan?
What Caused Japanese Aggression in World War II?
The Implications of Pearl Harbour and Japanese Loss in World War II
A-Level: European history, 1919–41
The Three Dictators (1919–41): An Introduction
Mussolini’s Italy, 1919–41
What claims did Italy make at the Paris Peace Conference?
What was the state of Italy after the First World War?
What were the problems of the Democratic Government, 1919-22?
Italian Social Democratic Party
The Socialist Party of Italy (PSI)
The Italian People's Party / Italian Popular Party (PPI)
Democratic Liberal Party (PLDI)
National Fascist Party
What was the appeal of Fascism from 1919–22?
Mussolini’s appointment as prime minister
What challenges did Mussolini face after his appointment as Prime Minister?
(1924) Matteotti Crisis
How did Mussolini establish a dictatorship?
Repression in Fascist Italy
Mussolini's use of Propaganda
Corfu & Fiume: Mussolini's Foreign Policy
Mussolini’s Diplomacy from 1923 to 1934
Italian aggression after 1934
The Fascist Corporate State
Mussolini's Economic Aims
Mussolini’s dealings with the Church
Mussolini’s approach to Education
Mussolini's views towards Women
Overview of Mussolini's Italy / Mussolini's Italy Essay Plans
Stalin’s Russia, 1924–41
What was the difference between Marxism and Leninism?
How did Stalin consolidate his power between 1922 and 1929?
The Economic Policies of Stalin’s Russia
Stalin’s views towards Women
The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia
The Treatment of Ethnic Minorities in the Soviet Union
How did Stalin use repression to gain absolute power?
How did Stalin establish a cult of personality?
How far was Stalin a totalitarian ruler?
The Legacy of Joseph Stalin
Hitler’s Germany, 1929–41
What were the problems of Weimar politicians from 1929?
Establishment of the Nazi Party & Nazi Policies
Hitler's Appointment as Chancellor
How did Hitler consolidate his power?
How did Hitler use propaganda to indoctrinate the German people?
Nazi Youth Groups
The Education System of Nazi Germany
Youth Opposition to the Nazis
Nazi policy towards minorities and opposition
Hitler’s Foreign Policy
Hitler's Economic Policies for Nazi Germany
How were women treated in Nazi Germany?
How did German life change under the Nazi Regime?
Strength through Joy (KDF)
Did the people of Germany truly support the Nazi Regime?
An Introduction to Post-World War Britain
The Irish Free State
The changing fortunes of the Conservative party
Who was Stanley Baldwin?
The First Labour Government
The General Strike of 1926
The Second Labour Government
Britain's response to the Great Depression
The Abdication of King Edward VIII
How did society and living standards change during the interwar period?
How did living standards change during the inter-war period?
How did the British people spend their leisure time in the interwar period?
The Policy of Appeasement
How did the British prepare for the Second World War?
A-Level: Exam Techniques
A-Level Paper 3
A-Level Paper 4
How to interpret and analyse sources
How to improve your source questions
How to revise for History A-Level
🏳️🌈 An LGBTQ+ Education (Podcast)
🇺🇦 The Russo-Ukrainian War (Current Events Podcast)
History: From One Student to Another
CIE IGCSE History:
2020 Specimen Mark Scheme from
the CIE Website