Triple Intervention (1895)

Aims: To force Japan to renegotiate the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) and relinquish control of the Liaodong peninsula in China.

Organised by: Russia

Other Powers involved: Germany, France, Japan

Reasons for the agreement:

• Russia wanted to gain control over the warm-water port of Port Arthur on the Liaodong peninsula.

• France felt obliged to support its ally, Russia under the Franco-Russian Alliance (1894).

• Germany wanted to draw Russia away from its interest in the Balkans in Europe and hoped to gain their support for

German territorial concessions in China (Kiaochow).

Main agreements reached:

• Control of the Liaodong peninsula and Port Arthur was handed over to Russia in exchange for compensation.

• A joint Russian and Japanese protectorate was established over Korea.

Consequences of the agreements:

• Russia gained a warm water port in the Pacific.

• Russia supported German claims to Kiachow in 1898.

• Japan felt humiliated by the Triple Intervention and embarked upon a programme of naval expansion.